The fuselage aft of the canopy remained essentially unchanged in its externals. The new radiator position also had the effect of counterbalancing the extra weight and length of the DB 601, which drove a heavier three-bladed Vereinigte Deutsche Metallwerke (VDM)-made propeller.[14]. In these GM-1 nitrous oxide 'boost' was used, and the pilot's back armour was removed, as were all fittings for the long-range drop tank. About 1,230 F-2s were built between October 1940 and August 1941 by AGO, Arado, Erla, Messerschmitt Regensburg and WNF(Wiener Neustädter Flugzeugwerke). The F-2 introduced the 15 mm Mauser MG 151 cannon with 200 rounds. Armour and armament were otherwise similar to the K-6.[110]. The project was permanently abandoned in 1944.[113][114]. [7], A total of 341 Bf 109 B-1s were built by Messerschmitt, Fieseler, and the Erla Maschinenwerke. By September 1939, the Bf 109 had become the main fighter of the Luftwaffe, replacing the biplane fighters, and was instrumental in gaining air superiority for the Wehrmacht during the early stages of the war. Another major difference from competing designs was the higher wing-loading. The K-14 was to be powered by the two-stage supercharged DB 605L engine, using a four-bladed propeller. [74] The G-5 with a pressurized cockpit was identical to the G-6. The suffix 'T' denotes Träger (carrier) in German use. Cross and Scarborough 1976, pp. The cockpit canopy was also revised to an easier-to-produce, "squared-off" design, which also helped improve the pilot's field of view. U.S. Strategic Bombing Survey, Aircraft Division Industry Report, Exhibit I – German Airplane Programs vs Actual Production. The Bf-109A had been designed with a thin wing which had no room for guns, so to keep up with the British a third machine gun was added to the Messerschmitt, firing through the propeller hub, and in later prototypes this was upgraded to a 20mm cannon. The ailerons were increased in span, as were the slats, and flap travel was increased. Some K-6 prototypes were built and tested at the Erprobungstelle Tarnewitz weapons-testing centre on the Baltic coast. In addition, the V4 had a single-piece, clear-view, sliding cockpit canopy and a more powerful Jumo 210Da engine with a modified exhaust system. From early 1944, some G-2s, G-3s, G-4s and G-6s were converted to two-seat trainers, known as G-12s. A smaller wing area was optimal for achieving high speed, but low-speed flight would suffer, as the smaller wing would require more airflow to generate enough lift to maintain flight. The aircraft was often nicknamed Messer by its operators and opponents alike; the name was not only an abbreviation of the manufacturer, but also the German word for "knife". To compensate for this, the Bf 109 included advanced high-lift devices on the wings, including automatically opening leading edge slats, and fairly large camber-changing flaps on the trailing edge. XIV and Hawker Tempest Mk. [citation needed], "The 109 was a dream, the non plus ultra. Beaman, John R. Jr. and Jerry L. Campbell. However, it soon became one of the frontrunners in the contest, as the Arado and Focke-Wulf entries, which were intended as "backup" programmes to safeguard against failure of the two favourites, proved to be completely outclassed. [101], Power in production K-4s was supplied by the Daimler-Benz DB 605 DB/DC engine (very early K-4s used the earlier DM). Specifications. The Messerschmitt 109 G-6 was the most numerous sub-type of the Luftwaffe’s basic front-line fighter. By tucking the radiators more tightly into the wings, the designers reduced drag and improved lift. Other features of the redesigned wings included new leading edge slats, which were slightly shorter but had a slightly increased chord; and new rounded, removable wingtips which changed the planview of the wings and increased the span slightly over that of the E-series. The next model, the V10 prototype, was identical to the V8, except for its Jumo 210G engine. The first flight by a Messerschmitt Bf109 took place in September 1935. The parasol winged Fw 159, potentially inspired by the same firm's earlier Focke-Wulf Fw 56, was always considered by the E-Stelle Travemünde facility's staff to be a compromise between a biplane and an aerodynamically more efficient, low-wing monoplane. It was known as E-4/B (DB 601Aa engine) and E-4/BN (DB 601N engine). However, these valves were delivered to frontline units as kits, the number of which, for unknown reasons, was limited. A boundary layer duct allowed continual airflow to pass through the airfoil above the radiator ducting and exit from the trailing edge of the upper split flap. He agreed to show the Soviets how to service the plane. Rüstsatz kits did not alter the aircraft type so a Bf 109 G-6 with Rüstsatz II (50 kg/110 lb bombs) remained a Bf 109 G-6 and not G-6/R2, which was a reconnaissance fighter with MW 50, as suggested by most publications. This page details the development and operational history of the Messerschmitt Bf 109 including technical specifications and pictures. [32], The gun barrel was placed in a long, large-diameter tube located between the spar and the leading edge. [66], A total of 167 G-1s were built between February and June 1942,[67] 1,586 G-2s between May 1942 and February 1943, and one further G-2 was built in Győr, Hungary, in 1943. A total of 475 examples were built between May 1943 and August 1944. Medium. The exact amount of Bf 109G-12s built is unknown as war-weary G-2, G-4, and G-6 airframes were converted or rebuilt to produce this variant. [12][13], Only very limited numbers of the E-2 variant were built, for which the V20 prototype served as basis. [62], From the Bf 109 G-5 on an enlarged wooden tail unit (identifiable by a taller vertical stabilizer and rudder with a morticed balance tab, rather than the angled shape) was often fitted. V22 also became the testbed for the pre-production DB 601E. Several Bf 109Ds were sold to Hungary. The DB 600A was dropped as the improved DB601A with direct fuel injection was soon to become available. [32] The armament of the Bf 109T consisted of two 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17s above the engine and one 20 mm MG FF/M cannon in each wing.[27]. It was originally intended that the wheel wells would incorporate small doors to cover the outer portion of the wheels when retracted. By March 1943, it was decided that many other modifications to components would be needed and the project was abandoned in order to concentrate on the Me 262 project. The pilot cockpit used in the prototypes was the same as utilized in the Bf 109E/G types. [80], Some versions of the G-6 and later Gs had a taller, wood-structure tail unit and redesigned rudder with an inset rudder balance protruding forward into the fin which improved stability at high speeds. Green 1980, pp. The rudder was fitted as standard with a Flettner tab and two fixed tabs although some rare examples were not fitted with the fixed tabs. Some were still in service in the late 1960s. Of course, everyone wanted to fly it as soon as possible.". A few prototypes of these early aircraft were converted to use the more powerful DB 600. Finally, the German ammo counter was also a great thing.[30]. Gr. Fighters with liquid-cooled engines were vulnerable to hits in the cooling system. Series production started in August 1944 with the K-4 model, due to changes in the design and delays with the new DB 605D powerplant. Field kits known as Rüstsätze were also available but those did not change the aircraft designation. [45] The Me 209 V1 was powered by the DB 601ARJ, producing 1,156 kW (1,550 hp), but capable of reaching 1,715 kW (2,300 hp). Made by Messerschmitt, it first flew in 1935, and was used by the Luftwaffeduring the Spanish Civil Warand throughout World War II. Later in the war, when Allied victories began to bring the fight closer, and then in German territory, bombing raids supplied plenty of targets for the Luftwaffe. The E-3 was replaced by the E-4 (with many airframes being upgraded to E-4 standards starting at the beginning of the Battle of Britain), which was different in some small details, most notably by using the modified 20 mm MG-FF/M wing cannon and having improved head armour for the pilot. [12], The E-5 and E-6 were both reconnaissance variants with a camera installation behind the cockpit. The F-type also omitted the earlier stabilizer lift strut on either side of the tail. Each of the legs was secured by two quick-release screw fittings on the firewall. Both airframes were to be powered by the DB605 engine. The A-0 was not of a uniform type; there were several changes in their appearance. The D-2 was an experimental version with an engine-mounted machine gun, but as previously tried, this installation failed. The Bf 109 first saw operational service during the Spanish Civil War and was still in service at the dawn of the jet age at the end of World War II, during which time it was the backbone of the Luftwaffe's fighter force. This canopy, which was also retrofitted to many E-1s and E-3s, was largely unchanged until the introduction of a welded, heavy-framed canopy on the G series in the autumn of 1942. D.(Luft) T.2109 Bf 109 G-6/U4 Flugzeug handbuch, Tei 0: Allgemeine Angaben. While making an evasive manoeuvre, the wings broke away and Balthasar was killed when his aircraft hit the ground. 21 cm (8 in) under-wing mortar/rockets and the 30 mm (1.18 in) MK 108 cannon increased firepower. They won in several categories: First prize in a speed race over a 202 km course, first prize in the class A category in the international Alpenrundflug for military aircraft, and victory in the international Patrouillenflug category. The problem was that the only place available to mount additional guns was in the wings. In January 1939 the first … In the preproduction model, the right fuselage cockpit was faired over and the pilot flew the aircraft from the left side fuselage. The wing tips were akin to that of the Bf 109E. [53][57] Finally, the Erla factory produced 576 tropicalized F-4 trop in the first half of 1942. [54] (Eight 109Es were assembled in Switzerland in 1946 by the Dornier-Werke, using licence built airframes; a ninth airframe was assembled using spare parts. Teil 0, Allgemeine Angaben, 1944. The Friedrich had new wings, cooling system and fuselage aerodynamics, with the 1,175 PS (1,159 HP) DB 601N (F-1, F-2) or the 1,350 PS (1,332 HP) DB 601E (F-3, F-4). [42] The G-6 variant was nicknamed by Luftwaffe personnel as Die Beule ("the bump/bulge") because of the cowling's characteristic, bulging covers for the breeches of the 13 mm (.51 in) MG 131 machine guns, with the separate Beule covers eliminated by the time of the G-10 model's introduction of a subtly reshaped upper cowling. [11] Each was asked to deliver three prototypes for head-to-head testing in late 1934. There was increasing tendency to use plywood on some less vital parts e.g. Takeoff weight was 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). The G-14 arrived in July 1944 at the invasion front over France. Production lasted exactly a year between May 1941 and May 1942, with 1,841 of all F-4 variants produced. [115], Experimental version of Bf 109G-2/R1 with extra landing gear, one ventral 250 kg bomb and two drop tanks under wings, After the war, some Bf 109s were produced in Czechoslovakia as the Avia S-99 and Avia S-199. This resulted in a shell with a thin but strong wall, which had a larger cavity in which to pack a much larger explosive charge than was otherwise possible. [36], The wing radiators were shallower and set farther back on the wing. The DB 605 suffered from reliability problems during the first year of operation, and this output was initially banned by VT-Anw.Nr.2206, forcing Luftwaffe units to limit maximum power output to 1,310 PS (1,292 hp, 964 kW) at 2,600 rpm and 1.3 atm manifold pressure (38.9 inches/4.4 lbs). The fuselage was to come from the Bf 109H/BV 155B high-altitude fighter (with a new nose and tail section), the wing was from the Me 409 project and the tricycle undercarriage came from the Me 309. The lower split flap was mechanically linked to the central "main" flap, while the upper split flap and forward bath lip position were regulated via a thermostatic valve which automatically positioned the flaps for maximum cooling effectiveness. The tube channeled cooling air around the barrel and breech, exhausting from a slot at the rear of the wing. [108] Without MW 50 and using 1.80 ata the K-4 reached 670 km/h (416 mph) at 9,000 m (30,000 ft). [68] Maximum speed of the G-2 was 537 km/h (334 mph) at sea level and 660 km/h (410 mph) at 7,000 m (22,970 ft) rated altitude with the initial reduced 1.3 atm rating. From the inception of the design, priority was given to easy access to the powerplant, fuselage weapons and other systems while the aircraft was operating from forward airfields. Caption. Armament was initially planned to be just two cowl-mounted 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns. The canopy structure was completely redesigned to incorporate a greater area of clear perspex; the welded framing for the three-panel Erla Haube design was reduced to a minimum and there was no longer a fixed rear portion, with the entire structure aft of the windscreen being hinged to swing to starboard when opened. The K series was a response to the bewildering array of series, models, modification kits and factory conversions for the Bf 109, which made production and maintenance complicated and costly – something Germany could not afford late in the war. [52], The first redesign came with the E series, including the naval variant, the Bf 109T (T standing for Träger, carrier). Pg. [36] Underneath the cowling was a revised, more streamlined oil cooler radiator and fairing. [78], During the course of 1943, a number of improvements were gradually introduced. Bf 109 G-10/U4. A special high-altitude variant, the F-4/Z featuring GM-1 boost, was also built with a production run of 544 in the first quarter of 1942 and saw extensive use. Resource on Messerschmitt Bf 109 performance. What else did I like about the Messer? If the shaft were solid, the core would be ballast. [51] The initial production models of the A, B, C and D series were powered by the relatively low-powered, 670–700 PS (660–690 HP) Junkers Jumo 210 series engines. [21] The installation of a fixed "tall" tailwheel on some of the late G-10s and −14s and the K-series helped alleviate the problem to a large extent.[22]. The entire weapon could be removed for servicing by removing a leading edge panel. Initial prototype versions were symmetrical, but as larger superchargers were fitted, the engines required modified upper engine bearers to clear the supercharger housing, and as a result the final shape of the new cowling was asymmetrical, being enlarged on the port side where the supercharger was mounted on the DB engine. These so-called agglomerations could be seen in several different patterns. 7 The first Bf 109 prototype, the Bf-109V1 had a British Rolls-Royce Kestrel engine when it made its debut in September 1935, and had a higher wing loading (24 lbs/sq ft.) than that of any other aircraft submitted for the competition. The primary engines used were the Daimler-Benz DB 601 and DB 605, though the Junkers Jumo 210 powered most of the pre-war variants. The Bf 109Ts were issued to several training units in 1943. These were designated F-4/R1 and 240 of them were produced by WNF in the first quarter of 1942. The performance was to be evaluated based on the fighter's level speed, rate of climb, and maneuverability, in that order.[8]. [32], The much longer and heavier MG FF had to be mounted farther along the wing in an outer bay. Its basic design provided the potential for it to take new engines and armament so that it remained the backbone of the Luftwaffe fighter forces throughout World War Two. A total of 647 Bf 109Ds of all versions were built by Focke-Wulf, Erla, Fieseler, Arado and AGO. As before, dihedral was 6.53°. [6], During 1933, the Technisches Amt (C-Amt), the technical department of the Reichsluftfahrtministerium (RLM) ("Reich Aviation Ministry"), concluded a series of research projects into the future of air combat. The Bf 109E series offered superior diving performance and various armament options, including the common layout of two cannon plus two machine-guns. To incorporate the new radiators, the wings were almost completely redesigned and reinforced, with several inboard ribs behind the spar being cut down to make room for the radiator ducting. The radio equipment was the FuG 16ZY with the relocated main swept-forward radio antenna under the port wing from the G-10 being carried through as the standard for the K-series airframes. Uffz. [116] The Ha 1112 was produced until 1958. It was found that the performance of the T-2 was closely comparable to the E-4/N and, because of its ability to take off and land in shorter distances, these fighters were assigned to I/JG.77, deployed in Norway on landing strips which were both short and subject to frequent, powerful cross-winds. Only one spot was available in each wing, between the wheel well and slats, with room for only one gun, either a 7.92 mm MG 17 machine gun, or a 20 mm MG FF or MG FF/M cannon. In addition, the angled armour plate for the pilot's head was replaced by a vertical piece which sealed-off the rear of the side-hinged cockpit canopy. "Developing Power: Daimler-Benz and the Messerschmitt Bf 109.". Ground accidents were a problem with inexperienced pilots, especially during the later stages of the war when pilots received less training before being sent to operational units. The entire powerplant could be removed or replaced as a unit in a matter of minutes,[19] a potential step to the eventual adoption of the unitized-powerplant Kraftei engine mounting concept used by many German combat aircraft designs, later in the war years. These received some structural improvements and more powerful armament. [65][66][67][68], After the August 1943 Regensburg raid, some Bf 109 production was relocated to Gusen concentration camp in Austria,[69][70] where the average prisoner's life expectancy was six months. […] … Pilots from Italy, Romania, Croatia, Bulgaria, and Hungary also flew the Bf 109. Several Rüstsätze could be fitted, although installing these did not change the designation of the aircraft. When fitted with the MW-50 water/methanol injection system this became the DB 605DM. [87] The radio antenna mast was also removed from atop the rear fuselage turtledeck, and replaced with a standard late-war Luftwaffe ventral whip aerial antenna under the wing. [100] The standard Revi 16C reflector sight was fitted, which was slated to be replaced by the EZ 42 Gyro gunsight, although this never happened. The following variants of the G-5 and G-6 were produced: One offensive weapons upgrade in 1943 for the Bf 109G — and also used for the Fw 190A — was one that mounted the Werfer-Granate 21 heavy calibre rocket weapon system with one launching tube under each wing panel. 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