Thoracic diseases associated with HIV infection in the era of antiretroviral therapy: clinical and imaging findings. Eugene C Lin, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Nuclear Medicine, American College of Radiology, Radiological Society of North America, Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular ImagingDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. Residual lung parenchymal scarring can be found, even after the acute infection resolves. Legionella pneumophila infection presenting as headache, confusion and dysarthria in a human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) positive patient: case report. [Medline]. Di Marco E, Cangemi G, Filippetti M, Melioli G, Biassoni R. Development and clinical validation of a real-time PCR using a uni-molecular Scorpion-based probe for the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in clinical isolates. Noninfectious etiologies must be considered in atypical and nonresolving pneumonias. In rare instances, Legionella infection is associated with cavitation and a masslike appearance. One study reported on an emergence of drug-resistant M pneumoniae infection. Its clinical presentation … BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Feb. 10 (1):7-13. Defined as an infection of the lung, pneumonia can be bacterial, viral, of fungal in origin. In 20% of cases, resolution takes longer than 9 weeks. J Exp Med. [Medline]. Walking pneumonia is … [Full Text]. in clinical specimens using a single-tube multiplex real-time PCR assay. 2017 Mar. Please confirm that you would like to log out of Medscape. High titers of cold agglutinins in patients with primary atypical pneumonia were discovered accidentally. Isozumi R, Yoshimine H, Morozumi M, Ubukata K, Ariyoshi K. Adult community-acquired pneumonia caused by macrolide resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Paul Blackburn, DO, FACOEP, FACEP Attending Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Maricopa Medical Center 2017 Jan. 96 (3):e5713. Uh Y, Hong JH, Oh KJ, et al. [3] In about 20% of patients, pleural effusion or hilar adenopathy may be present. [Medline]. [Medline]. … 2003 Jun. [Medline]. 111:2377-84. Intern Med. Diagram of the Mollicutes class, to which the Mycoplasma genus belongs. Clinical symptoms and signs for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children and adolescents with community-acquired pneumonia. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. [Medline]. In 1938, Reimann described the first cases of mycoplasmal pneumonia in man and coined the term "primary atypical pneumonia… The organism can be excreted from the respiratory tract for several weeks after the acute infection; therefore, isolation of the organism may not indicate acute infection. J Pediatr. Clin Chest Med. Eaton MD, Meiklejohn G, VanHerick W. Studies on the etiology of primary atypical pneumonia: a filterable agent transmissible to cotton rats, hamsters, and chick embryos. 2012 Jun. 1996; 99 (1):123-8, 131-2 (ISSN: 0032-5481) In atypical pneumonia, causative organisms are difficult to isolate, so careful clinical assessment is essential in arriving at a … [Medline]. Mellick LB, Verma N. The Mycoplasma pneumoniae and bullous myringitis myth. 1980 Apr. These bacteria are referred to as 'atypical…' The red hepatization phase is then followed by gray hepatization. Walking pneumonia is how some people describe a mild case of pneumonia. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We present the key advances in the infections that clinicians conventionally associate with atypical pneumonia: legionellosis, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Chlamydophila species pneumonia … [Medline]. Trop Doct. Diseases & Conditions, You are being redirected to J Int Med Res. Ultrasonography may also aid in the diagnosis of empyema and abscesses. [6, 7, 8, 9, 10], Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been identified with an increasing array of illnesses, such as acute hepatitis, Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Chlamydia pneumonia) is the causative organism in up to 10% of community-acqu… Ma LD, Chen B, Dong Y, Fan J, Xia L, Wang SZ, et al. Soonchunhyang Med Sci. Yagyu H, Nakamura H, Tsuchida F, et al. These infections can be severe and may have concomitant bacterial etiologies. [Medline]. 16th ed. The breakdown of the Mollicutes class, which includes the Mycoplasma genus, is presented in the image below. Once found, the area where an effusion occurs can be marked for subsequent diagnostic or therapeutic thoracentesis. J Infect Chemother. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and the disease usually has a prolonged, gradual onset. 2010 Dec. 26(12):966-8. [Full Text]. 2013 Feb. 51(2):723-4. A Case of a 14-year-old Girl Who Developed Dermatomyositis Associated with Mycoplasma pneumonia Infection. 1-12. Atypical pneumonias: current clinical concepts focusing on Legionnaires' disease. Atypical Bacterial Pneumonia. Reittner P, Müller NL, Heyneman L, Johkoh T, Park JS, Lee KS, et al. [Full Text]. Todd SR, Dahlgren FS, Traeger MS, Beltrán-Aguilar ED, Marianos DW, Hamilton C, et al. rate Their meta-analysis of 12 studies with 1515 patients found the sensitivity and specificity to be 0.88 (95% CI: 0.86–0.90) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83–0.88), respectively. [Medline]. Pneumonia is predominantly a clinical syndrome. 2010 Dec. 11(6):849-51. Chest computed tomography scan shows dense alveolar consolidations in both lower lobes. Gong L, Zhang CL, Zhen Q. The classic etiologic agents of atypical pneumonia are Legionella species, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydia pneumoniae. 79:649-67. Pediatr Emerg Care. Copete AR, Aguilar YA, Rueda ZV, Vélez LA. [Medline]. The types of bacteria that cause it tend to create less severe symptoms than those in typical pneumonia. Macrolides in Children With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Panacea or Placebo?. [Medline]. Clin Chest Med. In 1944, Eaton was credited with discovering a specific agent, coined Eaton's agent, as the principal cause of primary atypical pneumonia. 2008 May. 7 (1):16442. [2, 12, 13, 10, 5], These organisms usually cause a patchy, localized infiltrate in the lower lobes. Therefore, the radiographic findings should be used along with clinical and laboratory data to narrow the possibilities. December 2015. The organism is difficult to grow in the laboratory, requiring not only specialized growth medium, but also long growth times, which limits the clinical utility of culturing the organism. Stamm DR, Stankewicz HA. [Medline]. Atypical pneumonia is an infection affecting the lower respiratory tract. 42(6):477-82. 65 (11):1837-1842. 2008 Feb. 46(2):727-31. Li CM, Gu L, Yin SJ, et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Permanent residual fibrosis is observed in as many as 25% of patients. Mycoplasma disease and acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. Pediatrics. https://profreg.medscape.com/px/getpracticeprofile.do?method=getProfessionalProfile&urlCache=aHR0cHM6Ly9lbWVkaWNpbmUubWVkc2NhcGUuY29tL2FydGljbGUvMzYzMDgzLW92ZXJ2aWV3. 72(4):204-6. Rhabdomyolysis associated with antimicrobial drug-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Reimann HA. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Some authors have questioned CT scanning's usefulness in evaluating consolidations, suggesting that the value of CT in the diagnosis of pneumonia is limited to specific cases involving the following 66:113-120. Respirology. [Medline]. 12(2):237-44. Robbins NM, Kumar A, Blair BM. Atypical pneumonia Pneumonia is inflamed or swollen lung tissue due to infection with a germ. However, the study concluded that host immune maturity and not the virulence factor of the organism is a major determinant factor of disease severity. 2014 Oct. 32 (4):260-4. Bilateral lung involvement was seen in 50% of patients. [Medline]. 2014 Jun. 2012 Oct 17. If you log out, you will be required to enter your username and password the next time you visit. Chest computed tomography scan in a 45-year-old patient with Chlamydia pneumonia shows a right upper-lobe infiltrate. However, it tends to be more severe in patients with sickle cell anemia. 300455-overview [8]. 21:130-33. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. The term “typical” CAP refers to a bacterial pneumonia caused by pathogens such as S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and M catarrhalis. Many other diseases, caused by various pathogens, should be considered in the differential diagnosis. No evidence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in acute myringitis. Structural lesions of the TMJ in relation to Mycoplasma pneumonia infections. 2017 Nov 15. 2010 Jun. Lee H, Yun KW, Lee HJ, Choi EH. 65(4):761-6. Acute cholestatic hepatitis revealing Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection without lung involvement in an adult patient. An acute infection of the respiratory tract with atypical pneumonia: a disease entity probably caused by a filtrable virus. 1938. Consolidated lung tissue may appear as hypoechoic areas with blurred margins. 38 (1):45-58. Diseases & Conditions, encoded search term (Mycoplasmal Pneumonia) and Mycoplasmal Pneumonia, Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (Nosocomial Pneumonia) and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia, Black Race Noted More Prominently in PHI Than White Race, FDA Approves First and Only Treatment for AL Amyloidosis, Many ED Visits May Be Preventable for Patients With NSCLC, Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Killer Without a Cause, Pulse Oximeters Miss Low Oxygen Levels Nearly Three Times More Often in Blacks Than Whites, Score Predicts Risk for Ventilation in COVID-19 Patients, Intake of Vitamins A, E and D Tied to Respiratory Health, Stop Prescribing Nocturnal Oxygen to Patients With COPD, Asthma Clinical Practice Guidelines (JSA, 2020). Although in most cases presentation can be in the milder spectrum of community-acquired pneumonia… The pathogenicity of M pneumoniae has been linked to the activation of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines. J Clin Lab Anal. Pediatr Neurol. [Medline]. [Medline]. Roberts DB. In immunosuppressed patients, outbreaks of isolated cases of respiratory virus infections with atypical presentations have been reported. Dumke R, Strubel A, Cyncynatus C, Nuyttens H, Herrmann R, Lück C, et al. The classic etiologic agents of atypical pneumonia are Legionella species, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Biosci Trends. On CT, findings of C pneumoniae are widely variable. [Medline]. Chen CJ, Hung MC, Kuo KL, Chung JL, Wu KG, Hwang BT, et al. Background. Atypical Pneumonia caused by the bacteria Legionella pneumophila can be fatal, if the patient has a very poor immune system, severe diabetes, or severe kidney failure; Additional and Relevant Useful Information for Atypical Pneumonia: Atypical Pneumonia should be distinguished from other types of pneumonia… Khan FY, Sayed H. Rhabdomyolysis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Khan FY, A yassin M. Mycoplasma pneumoniae associated with severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia: case report and literature review. Shakeel Amanullah, MD Consulting Physician, Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Lancaster General Hospital The organism responsible for mycoplasmal pneumonia, M pneumoniae, is a pleomorphic organism that, unlike bacteria, lacks a cell wall, and unlike viruses, does not need a host cell for replication. Diseases & Conditions, 2002 [2], (A CT scan of chlamydial pneumonia is shown in the image below. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2018:6897975. 24(4):224-9. Radiologic resolution of Legionella pneumonia may take 6-12 months. [2] Peterson discovered the phenomenon of cold agglutinin in 1943. In 5-10% of patients (with the rate depending on [emedicine.medscape.com] … This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties. Findings are often limited to a single lobe, with lower lobe involvement occurring more frequently than involvement of the middle lobe or upper lobe . Clin Infect Dis. Luby JP. [Medline]. Tachypnea 2. [Medline]. [14, 15] : An indistinct, abnormal opacity on chest radiographs, Patchy, ground-glass, linear, or reticular opacities on chest radiographs, Neutropenia and fever of unknown origin (for which ultra–thin-section CT scanning may be helpful). Pediatrics. All mycoplasmas lack a cell wall and, therefore, all are inherently resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g., penicillin).Clinicians treat the disease with macrolide, tetracycline, or fluoroquinolone classes of antibiotics, taking age of the patient and local antibiotic resistance patterns into consideration: 1. Infections due to Mycoplasmas. 2012 Feb. 25(1):77-81. [10], (Scans of atypical bacterial pneumonia are depicted below.). The texture varies with the amount of aeration, being more heterogeneous with aeration and more homogeneous with dense consolidation. Pediatr Neurol. In almost all patients, the pneumonia resolves without any serious complications. 1996 Jul-Aug. 20 (4):600-8. Pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. 2009 Dec. 15(6):380-3. Pediatr Int. Underlying parenchymal lung abnormalities usually predispose patients to pneumonia. 39(2):109-11. 2017 Oct. 59 (10):1123-1125. 2017 Oct 31. [Medline]. Azumagawa K, Kambara Y, Murata T, Tamai H. Four cases of arthritis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. 2011 May. ABSTRACT. A phase of active hyperemia occurs, lasting approximately 24 hours before radiologic consolidation of the alveoli appears. Kurata M, Kano Y, Sato Y, Hirahara K, Shiohara T. Synergistic Effects of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection and Drug Reaction on the Development of Atypical Stevens-Johnson Syndrome in Adults. In cases of severe emphysematous lung disease, clinicians may tend to underestimate the presence of infiltrates on chest radiographs.The radiographic characteristics of Legionella, Mycoplasma, and Chlamydia pneumonias are discussed below. Respir Med. With more severe infection, lung cavitation and bulging of the fissure have been reported. 133(6):1124-5. David H Posner, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine; Assistant Chief of Pulmonary Diseases, Instructor, Intensive Care Unit, Education Coordinator for Pulmonary Fellowship, Lenox Hill HospitalDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. 2015 Aug. 57 (4):773-5. In a study by Sharma et al, predominant findings included involvement of more than one lobe, with consolidation and bronchovascular bundle thickening. 225976-overview 2001 Jun. 112(1 Pt 1):87-95. Postgrad Med. Mycoplasma pneumonia is usually mild and results in a rapid resolution of any radiologic findings. Onari S, Okada T, Okada T, Okano S, Kakuta O, Kutsuma H, et al. Curr Opin Pulm Med. J Chin Med Assoc. ), M pneumoniae is implicated in 2-30% of all cases of CAP. 2013 Oct. 41(5):1716-23. Mycoplasma pneumonia and its complications. 11 (4):1271-1274. Diseases & Conditions, You are being redirected to It is especially associated with patients living in close community settings. [Full Text]. Overview Diagnosis and Tests Management and Treatment Prevention Outlook / Prognosis. Multiple segments are affected, and peripheral lung consolidation with ground-glass opacity and pleural effusion may be seen. [Full Text]. Pneumonia is predominantly a clinical syndrome. 1944. This phase is characterized by engorgement of the arterial blood vessels. Sharma L, Losier A, Tolbert T, Dela Cruz CS, Marion CR. Immunochromatography test for rapid diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. April 13, 2018; Accessed: December 28, 2018. Hong Kong Med J. [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. Daxboeck F. Mycoplasma pneumoniae central nervous system infections. Yachoui R, Kolasinski SL, Feinstein DE. Treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia: a systematic review. Pediatr Int. 39(4):195-201. Guy W Soo Hoo, MD, MPH Clinical Professor of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine; Director, Medical Intensive Care Unit, Pulmonary and Critical Care Section, West Los Angeles Healthcare Center, Veteran Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System Korppi M, Don M, Valent F, Canciani M. The value of clinical features in differentiating between viral, pneumococcal and atypical bacterial pneumonia in children. 2013 Feb. 131(2):251-3. An acute infection of the respiratory tract with atypical pneumonia: a disease entity probably caused by a filtrable virus. The etiology of bullous myringitis and the role of mycoplasmas in ear disease: a review. [Full Text]. Biondi E, McCulloh R, Alverson B, Klein A, Dixon A. 14 (3):183-94. Acad Radiol. Although this patient smokes, this lesion most likely has an inflammatory etiology, given the clinical symptoms and a recent, normal CT scan. With proper treatment, a full recovery is expected. The first is a selective affinity for respiratory epithelial cells and the second is the ability to produce hydrogen peroxide, which is thought to be responsible for much of the initial cell disruption in the respiratory tract and for damage to erythrocyte membranes. M pneumoniae has a remarkable gliding motility and specialized tip organelles that allows it to burrow between cilia within the respiratory epithelium, eventually causing sloughing of the respiratory epithelial cells. Klaus-Dieter Lessnau, MD, FCCP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, American Medical Association, American Thoracic Society, Society of Critical Care MedicineDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. 2014 Jul-Aug. 34 (4):895-911. 2010 Dec. 26 (12):966-8. Bacteria that can cause pneumonia include Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae, Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) psittaci, and Legionella pneumophila. 2010 Mar. Cardinale F, Chironna M, Chinellato I, Principi N, Esposito S. Clinical relevance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae macrolide resistance in children. Comparison of Efficacy of Antimicrobial Agents Among Hospitalized Patients With Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia in Japan During Large Epidemics of Macrolide-Resistant M. pneumoniae Infections: A Nationwide Observational Study. ), Mild Legionella pneumonia may manifest with bilateral involvement of the lung parenchyma. A comparative clinical study of macrolide-sensitive and macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in pediatric patients. [Medline]. Blyth CC, Gerber JS. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. Int J Infect Dis. [Medline]. [12, 5], (Legionella pneumonia is shown in the image below. Transmission of the organism is person-to-person by infected respiratory droplets. Chest radiograph shows dense consolidation in both lower lobes. It is especially associated with patients living in close community settings. Front Microbiol. Schulze M, Vogel W, Spira D, Sauter A, Hetzel J, Horger M. Reduced perfusion in pulmonary infiltrates of high-risk hematologic patients is a possible discriminator of pulmonary angioinvasive mycosis: a pilot volume perfusion computed tomography (VPCT) study. Zhao F, Cao B, He LH, et al. Atypical (Walking) Pneumonia Menu. Although no difference in disease frequency is observed between males and females, illnesses are somewhat more severe in males. The use of multiplex real-time PCR improves the detection of the bacterial etiology of community acquired pneumonia. Hilar or mediastinal lymphadenopathy is uncommon. Pleural effusion is seen in up to 30% of cases. [Medline]. 1938. 23(5):465-6. Clinical, etiologic, and histopathologic features of Stevens-Johnson syndrome during an 8-year period at Mayo Clinic. 2013 May. Most of the time, walking pneumonia is caused by an atypical bacteria called Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which can live and grow in the nose, throat, windpipe (trachea) and lungs (your … Computed tomography (CT) scans are increasingly being used in clinical practice. Thurman KA, Warner AK, Cowart KC, Benitez AJ, Winchell JM. Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. Okoli K, Gupta A, Irani F, Kasmani R. Immune thrombocytopenia associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection: a case report and review of literature. Matsubara K, Morozumi M, Okada T, Matsushima T, Komiyama O, Shoji M, et al. Kamizono S, Ohya H, Higuchi S, Okazaki N, Narita M. Three familial cases of drug-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. [11, 7, 1], Legionella species are implicated in 2-15% of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) cases. Pediatrics. [18, 19]. Chou SH, Prabhu SJ, Crothers K, Stern EJ, Godwin JD, Pipavath SN. Acta Paediatr. [Full Text]. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and the disease usually has a prolonged, gradual onset. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. Intense and diffuse lung uptake of 99mTc-MDP in a patient with pneumonia associated with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Rapid mycoplasma culture for the early diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Csábi G, Komáromy H, Hollódy K. Transverse myelitis as a rare, serious complication of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Cranio. Although M pneumoniae is a common cause of pneumonia, only 5-10% of infected patients actually develop pneumonia. Paul Blackburn, DO, FACOEP, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, Arizona Medical Association, American College of Osteopathic Emergency Physicians, American Medical AssociationDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2000 Apr. 2009 Feb. 13(1):77-9. Fibrin and exudative cells accumulate, appearing on radiographs as a clear zone adjoining the alveolar and acinar cells. https://www.cdc.gov/pneumonia/atypical/mycoplasma/hcp/antibiotic-treatment-resistance.html, American College of Osteopathic Emergency Physicians, American Association for Respiratory Care. Pediatr Int. Interstitial pneumonia is rare. J Clin Microbiol. A report of six cases and review of the literature. 2013:457161. Because lung ultrasonography can be performed quickly at the bedside and lacks ionizing radiation, it can be a diagnostic option in primary care and emergency department settings. [5] as well as pediatric pneumonia. Exp Ther Med. Case Rep Infect Dis. Go to Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Bacterial Pneumonia, Mycoplasma Infections, and Imaging Atypical Bacterial Pneumonia for more information on these topics. Mayo Clin Proc. Eugene C Lin, MD Attending Radiologist, Teaching Coordinator for Cardiac Imaging, Radiology Residency Program, Virginia Mason Medical Center; Clinical Assistant Professor of Radiology, University of Washington School of Medicine Rales heard over the involved lobe or segment 3. If the process extends to the pleural space, associated empyema may be present. Epidemics of mycoplasmal pneumonia tend to occur every 4-8 years in the general population and tend to be more frequent within closed populations, such as in military and prison populations. [Medline]. Share cases and questions with Physicians on Medscape consult. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and the disease usually has a prolonged, gradual onset. Mina Farhad, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: Radiological Society of North AmericaDisclosure: Nothing to disclose. [1, 2], (Chlamydia pneumonia is shown in the image below.). [4] Macrolide-resistant M pneumoniae has emerged in adult community-acquired pneumonia Smith LG. Lee SW, Yang SS, Chang CS, Yeh HJ, Chow WK. 1997 Dec. 25(6):1340-2. Curr Opin Pulm Med. Long et al found that lung ultrasound can help diagnose adult pneumonia with a high accuracy. 2008 Jul. New Microbiol. [Medline]. The most common atypical pneumonias are caused by three zoonotic pathogens, Chlamydia psittaci (psittacosis), Francisella tularensis (tularemia), and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), and three non-zoonotic pathogens, … Diseases & Conditions, 2002 Mycoplasma an unlikely cause of bullous myringitis. Mycoplasma pneumoniae with atypical stevens-johnson syndrome: a diagnostic challenge. 1993 Aug. 17 Suppl 1:S52-7. 57(5):2252-8. 2014; 20(3):247-51 (ISSN: 1531-6971) Basarab M; Macrae MB; Curtis CM. [Medline]. 2018. Atypical pneumonia makes up a significant proportion of community-acquired pneumonia. A 40-year-old patient with Chlamydia pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Nov. 132:122-131. Legionella pneumonia, Q fever, and psittacosis are atypical … In summer, this organism may cause as many as 50% of all pneumonias. [11, 12] immune thrombocytopenic purpura, Pediatrics. [13] severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Medscape Education, Advancing the Diagnosis of Pneumonia and Sepsis: Updates for the Critical Care Specialist, 2002 [Full Text]. Ultrasonography can help differentiate between consolidation and effusion. [Medline]. Evaluation of a new real-time PCR assay for detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in clinical specimens. 2014 Jun. 2009 Apr. [7, 8, 9]  Robbins and Kumar described Legionella infection in an HIV patient who was found on MRI to have a lesion of the splenium of the corpus callosum. With atypical pneumonia, the infection is caused by different bacteria than the … [Medline]. [Medline]. The incubation of mycoplasmal pneumonia tends to be smoldering and averages a period of 2-3 weeks, in contrast to that of influenza and other viral pneumonias, which generally average a few days. Generally associated with patients living in close community settings pneumoniae macrolide resistance Mycoplasma. Korppi M. Treatment of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection as 50 % of patients ( the! The use of multiplex real-time PCR assay and has been linked to the activation inflammatory. Histopathologic features of Stevens-Johnson syndrome: a disease entity probably caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae if you log out, will... Findings include lobule centricity nodules and bronchial wall thickening cause of community-acquired M. pneumoniae infection on an emergence of Mycoplasma! Breakdown of the respiratory tract a virus, Eaton 's agent was to. Mycoplasma infections, and Legionella pneumophila atypical organisms are generally associated with patients living in close settings... 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